IL-1b, IL-2, Il-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, tnf-a, tnf-b, CCL3-MIP-1A, CCL4-MIP 1B, IFN – y, Vascular Endothelial Frowth Factor, GM-CSF, CCL11
- Mild respiratory SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause multi-lineage cellular dysregulation and myelin loss in the brain
- Human brain tissue from 9 individuals with COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2 infection exhibits the same pattern of prominent white matter-selective microglial reactivity.
- Humans experiencing long-COVID with cognitive symptoms (48 subjects) similarly demonstrate elevated CCL11 levels compared to those with long-COVID who lack cognitive symptoms (15 subjects).
- Impaired hippocampal neurogenesis, decreased oligodendrocytes and myelin loss in subcortical white matter were evident at 1 week, and persisted until at least 7 weeks, following mild respiratory SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice.